TRA TỪ

Phát âm tiếng Anh cơ bản

INTONATION

Intonation refers to the way the voice goes up or down in pitch when we speak. Without intonation, it's impossible to understand the expression and thoughts that go with words

Intonation doesn't exist in isolation.So it makes sense to approach it together with 3 other factors: grammar, attitude, discourse

1.Grammar and intonation

Many attempts have been made to show connections between intonation patterns and particular types of grammatical structures and the following list shows some of these:

1.1.Information questions (Wh-questions): Falling tune
Examples Listen
What's the time? ↘
What's your name? ↘
Where do you live? ↘
1.2. Yes/No questions: Rising tune
Examples Listen
Is this the blue one?
Have you got a pen? ↗
Is Jenny with you ? ↗
1.3. Statements: Falling tune
Examples Listen
He lives in the house on the corner.↘
It's over there. ↘
She's very happy.↘
1.4. Imperatives: Falling tune
Examples Listen
Please come in.↘
Get out of my life ↘
1.5. Tag questions

+ Expecting confirmation: falling tune ↘

+ Showing less certainty: rising tune ↗

Examples

 

Listen

Expecting confirmation

Listen

Showing less certainty

You're from Poland, aren't you?
Your name's Jacek, isn't it?
You live in Warsaw, don't you?
1.6. List of items: Rising, rising and finally falling
Examples Listen
You need a pen↗, a pencil ↗and some paper.↘
The stall sells ribbon↗, beads↗, elastic↗ and buttons.. ↘
2. Attitude and intonation
2.1. Level tune

The level tune is neutral and uninterested.

Examples Explanation Listen

Teacher: Adam Smith

Pupil: Yes

Teacher's calling names of the pupils from the register.
2.2. Rising tune

The rising tune conveys an impression that something more is to follow

Examples Explanation Listen

A: Do you know John Smith?

B: Yes ↗

B's reply is to invite A to continue what she intends to say about John Smith.
2.3. Falling tune

The falling tune is regarded as more or less neutral. It gives an impression of finality.

Examples Explanation Listen

A: Do you know John Smith?

B: Yes ↘

B's reply will be understood that the question now answered and there is nothing more to be said.
2.4.Rising-falling tune

The rising- falling tune is used to convey strong feelings of approval or surprise

Examples Explanation Listen

A: I have heard that he is a kind man.

B: Yes ↗ ↘

B's reply shows a strong approval.
2.5. Falling-rising tune

The falling-rising tune shows limitted agreement, response with reservation, uncertainty, or doubt

Examples Explanation Listen

A: I have heard that he is a kind man.

B: Yes ↘↗

B doesn't completely agree
3. Discourse and intonation

It is needed to be aware of intonation in the longer stretches of language. Here are some clearer guidelines given: "new" information = fall tune, "shared" information = fall -rise tune.

Examples Explanation Listen

A: Edinburgh's one of my favourite places in England.

B: But Endinburgh ↘↗ isn't in England ↘↗, it's in Scotland↘

"Edinburgh" and " England" are old information, "Scotland" is new information.

A: What time are we meeting? Did you say half past two?

B: No, not half past two↘↗, half past three↘

"Two" is old information, "three" is new information
Practice

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lenguyenminhhai muôn năm
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